cp - copy files and directories



cp − copy files and directories




Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
, −−archive

same as −dR −−preserve=all


don’t copy the file data, just the attributes


make a backup of each existing destination file


like −−backup but does not accept an argument


copy contents of special files when recursive


same as −−no−dereference −−preserve=links


explain how a file is copied. Implies −v

−f, −−force

if an existing destination file cannot be opened, remove it and try again (this option is ignored when the −n option is also used)

−i, −−interactive

prompt before overwrite (overrides a previous −n option)


follow command−line symbolic links in SOURCE

−l, −−link

hard link files instead of copying

−L, −−dereference

always follow symbolic links in SOURCE

−n, −−no−clobber

do not overwrite an existing file (overrides a −u or previous −i option). See also −−update

−P, −−no−dereference

never follow symbolic links in SOURCE


same as −−preserve=mode,ownership,timestamps


preserve the specified attributes


don’t preserve the specified attributes


use full source file name under DIRECTORY

−R, −r, −−recursive

copy directories recursively


control clone/CoW copies. See below


remove each existing destination file before attempting to open it (contrast with −−force)


control creation of sparse files. See below


remove any trailing slashes from each SOURCE argument

−s, −−symbolic−link

make symbolic links instead of copying

−S, −−suffix=SUFFIX

override the usual backup suffix

−t, −−target−directory=DIRECTORY

copy all SOURCE arguments into DIRECTORY

−T, −−no−target−directory

treat DEST as a normal file


control which existing files are updated; UPDATE={all,none,older(default)}. See below


equivalent to −−update[=older]

−v, −−verbose

explain what is being done

−x, −−one−file−system

stay on this file system


set SELinux security context of destination file to default type


like −Z, or if CTX is specified then set the SELinux or SMACK security context to CTX


display this help and exit


output version information and exit

ATTR_LIST is a comma−separated list of attributes. Attributes are ’mode’ for permissions (including any ACL and xattr permissions), ’ownership’ for user and group, ’timestamps’ for file timestamps, ’links’ for hard links, ’context’ for security context, ’xattr’ for extended attributes, and ’all’ for all attributes.

By default, sparse SOURCE files are detected by a crude heuristic and the corresponding DEST file is made sparse as well. That is the behavior selected by −−sparse=auto. Specify −−sparse=always to create a sparse DEST file whenever the SOURCE file contains a long enough sequence of zero bytes. Use −−sparse=never to inhibit creation of sparse files.

UPDATE controls which existing files in the destination are replaced. ’all’ is the default operation when an −−update option is not specified, and results in all existing files in the destination being replaced. ’none’ is similar to the −−no−clobber option, in that no files in the destination are replaced, but also skipped files do not induce a failure. ’older’ is the default operation when −−update is specified, and results in files being replaced if they’re older than the corresponding source file.

When −−reflink[=always] is specified, perform a lightweight copy, where the data blocks are copied only when modified. If this is not possible the copy fails, or if −−reflink=auto is specified, fall back to a standard copy. Use −−reflink=never to ensure a standard copy is performed.

The backup suffix is ’˜’, unless set with −−suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX. The version control method may be selected via the −−backup option or through the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable. Here are the values:
none, off

never make backups (even if −−backup is given)

numbered, t

make numbered backups

existing, nil

numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise

simple, never

always make simple backups

As a special case, cp makes a backup of SOURCE when the force and backup options are given and SOURCE and DEST are the same name for an existing, regular file.


Written by Torbjorn Granlund, David MacKenzie, and Jim Meyering.


GNU coreutils online help: <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
Report any translation bugs to <https://translationproject.org/team/>


Copyright © 2023 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.



Full documentation <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/cp>
or available locally via: info '(coreutils) cp invocation'

Updated 2024-01-29 - jenkler.se | uex.se