amprule - Stream Classification Utility

NAME  SYNOPSIS  DESCRIPTION  OPTIONS  ARGUMENTS  ACTIONS  OPERANDS  CONDITIONS  FIELDS  OPERATORS  STATES  CONTROLS  VOLATILITY  DEVICES  REFERENCES  DISCLAIMER  EXAMPLES  SEE ALSO  CREDITS 

NAME

amprule - Stream Classification Utility

SYNOPSIS

amprule [options] action operand condition [condition] [condition] control volatility [device] [device] [...]

where condition is a field operator value sequence.

DESCRIPTION

Format and send stream classification rules to one or more devices. Rules specify an action to be taken when a frame satisfies selection criteria. Selection criteria consists of one, two or three conditions where any or all conditions must be satisfied. Each condition consists of a field type, a relational operator and a value. Rules may be added to a device, or removed from a device, so that they have permanent or temporary effect.

Classification rules are cumulative. If a new rule set is identical to an old rule set then an error will occur unless it contains a different Transmission Action. In that case the old rule will be replaced. Identical classification rule sets are permitted if one of the sets is associated with a VLAN tag action. Classification is based on the original frame before is is altered by VLAN Tag insertion or removal.

Classification is multi-dimensional and the terminology used here may seem strange at first. Refer to the Qualcomm Atheros Firmware Techncial Reference Manual description of the VS_CLASSIFICATION management message for a full explanation.

This program is part of the Qualcomm Atheros Powerline Toolkit. See the plc man page for an overview and installation instructions.

OPTIONS

-e

Redirects stderr messages to stdout. By convention status and error messages are printed on stderr while primary program output is printed on stdout. This option prints all output on stdout in cases where this is desired.

-i interface

Select the host Ethernet interface. All requests are sent via this host interface and only reponses received via this host interface are recognized. The default interface is eth1 because most people use eth0 as their principle network connection; however, if environment string "PLC" is defined then it takes precedence over the default interface. This option then takes precedence over either default.

-q

Suppresses status messages on stderr.

-r

Read rules from a device and display them on stdout.

-s

Print a list of program keywords on stdout. This option over-rides all others, except -? and -!, and the program will terminate without further action.

-t milliseconds

Read timeout in milliseconds. Values range from 0 through UINT_MAX. This is the maximum time allowed for a response. The default is shown in brackets on the program menu. -T tag The VLAN tag to be inserted into frames before they are transmitted. The tag is a 32-bit hexadecimal integer with optional "0x" prefix. This option is required for action TagTX and must be omitted for all other actions.

-v

Print additional information on stdout. In particular, this option dumps incoming and outgoing packets which can be saved as text files for reference.

-V version

The CSPEC version number expressed as a small decimal integer. This option is required (and should be 2) for action TagTX and must be omitted for all other actions.

-?,--help

Print program help summary on stdout. This option takes precedence over other options on the command line.

-!,--version

Print program version information on stdout. This option takes precedence over other options on the command line. Use this option when sending screen dumps to Atheros Technical Support so that they know exactly which version of the Linux Toolkit you are using.

ARGUMENTS

action

The action to be taken for frames that meet any (or all) selection criteria. Valid actions are listed and described under ACTIONS.

operand

The operand specifies the logical relationship between conditions before the action to be taken. Valid operands are listed and described under OPERANDS.

condition

A conditional expression consisting of a field, operator and value. See CONDITIONS for more information.

control

The control specifies the action to be taken by the device upon receipt of the rule. The basic actions are to add it to, or remove it from, the list of existing rules. Valid controls are listed and described under CONTROLS.

volatility

The volatility specifies the effective lifetime of the rule. Temoprary rules are stored in SDRAM and are lost then the device is reset. Permanent rules are stored in NVRAM and are restored after the device is reset. Valid volatilities are listed and described under VOLATILITY.

device

The MAC address of some powerline device. More than one address may be specified on the command line. If more than one address is specified then operations are performed on each device in turn. The default address is "local". See DEVICES for more information.

ACTIONS

Actions indcate the disposition of frames that match selection criteria. They are expressed as discrete alphanumeric strings entered in upper, lower or mixed character case. They are position sensitive. Failure to enter a known action will results in an error message that lists permitted actions.
CAP0
,CAP1,CAP2,CAP3

Assign a specific Channel Access Priority to frames.

Drop,DropTX

Do not forward frames over powerline.

DropRX

Do not forward frames to host.

Boost

Boost frame priority to CAP3 for MMEs only. At least one condition must be "MME".

StripTX

Remove the VLAN Tag from frames before transmission over powerline. This option checks for a VLAN Tag even when there are no VLAN related conditions.

StripRX

Remove the VLAN Tag from frames before forwarding to host. This option checks for a VLAN Tag even when there are no VLAN related conditions.

TagTX

Insert a given VLAN Tag into frames before transmission over powerline. This action requires option -T to specify the tag and option -V to specify the CSPEC version.

OPERANDS

The operand indicates the logical relationship that must exist between conditions in the rule set before the action is applied to a frame. Operands are expressed as discrete alphanumeric strings entered in upper, lower or mixed character case. Failure to enter a known operand will result in an error message that lists permitted operands. They are positon sensitive. One operand is allowed and it must appear after the action and before any condition.

Any

Apply the action to frames that satisfy any of the conditions. This is equivalent to the logical or operation.

All

Apply the action to frames that satisfy all of the conditions. This is equivalent to the logical and operation.

Always

Apply the action to all frames. All conditions are ignored.

CONDITIONS

A condition consists of a field, an operator and a value. One condition is required but three are permitted. Condition order is not important but all conditions must appear after the operand and before the control.

field

The field is the part of the Ethernet frame to be examined. Some fields are not valid for some actions but this program does not enforce such rules since validation is performed by runtime firmware on each device. Recognized fields are listed and described under FIELDS.

operator

The operator specifies the relationsip that must exist between the field and value in order for the condition to evaluate True. Currently, only equality operators are supported. Valid operators are listed and described under OPERATORS.

value

The value must be appropriate to the field type. Some fields are MAC or IP addresses, some are integers, some are bitmaps and others are states. Integers and bitmaps may be expressed in binary, decimal or hexadecimal format. Binary values staRt with 0b. Hexadecimal values start with 0x. States are expressed using keywords. Users are responsible for knowing how many bits are significant for each type of value. Valid values are described along with fields under FIELDS.

FIELDS

Fields indicate the portion of the frame that is inspected during selection and the size and format of the value permited in the condition statement. They are expressed as discrete alphanumeric strings entered in upper, lower or mixed character case. Failure to enter a known field will result in an error message that lists permitted fields.

ET

A 16-bit Ethertype expressed in hexadecimal with optional "0x" prefix. The format is described in IEEE Standard 802-2001 [4].

EthDA

A 48-bit Ethernet destination address expressed in hexadecimal. Octets may be separated with optional colons for clarity. The format is described in IEEE Standard 802-2001 [4].

EthSA

A 48-bit Ethernet source address expressed in hexadecimal. Octets may be separated with optional colons for clarity. The format is described in IEEE Standard 802-2001 [4].

IPSP

A 16-bit IP source port expressed as a decimal integer. This condition applies to either TCP or UDP packets, depending on the protocol used, and is valid only for actions "CAP0", "CAP1", "CAP2", "CAP3" and "Drop".

IPDP

A 16-bit IP destination port expressed as a decimal integer. This condition applies to either TCP or UDP packets, depending on the protocol used, and is valid only for actions "CAP0", "CAP1", "CAP2", "CAP3" and "Drop".

IPV4TOS

An 8-bit Type-of-Service code where the format is defined in the RFC 791 (Internet Protocol) [14].

IPV4PROT

An 8-bit Ethernet protocol code. The format is defined in the RFC 791 (Internet Protocol) [14].

IPV4SA

A 32-bit Internet Protocol source address expressed in dotted-decimal notation. The official format is defined in RFC 791 (Internet Protocol) [14]. Our implementation permits empty octets and leading zeros within fields. For example, "..." is equivalent to "0.0.0.0 and "127..000.001" is equivalent to "127.0.0.1".

IPV4DA

A 32-bit Internet Protocol destination address expressed in dotted-decimal notation. The official format is defined in RFC 791 (internet Protocol) [14]. Our implementation permits empty octets and leading zeros within fields. For example, "..." is equivalent to "0.0.0.0 and "127..000.001" is equivalent to "127.0.0.1".

IPV6TC

An 8-bit Internet Protocol V6 traffic class expressed as defined in RFC 2460 (Internet Protocol Version 6) [17].

IPV6FL

A 24-bit IPV6 flow label where the lower 20 bits are the IPv6 Flow Label defined in RFC 2460 (Internat Protocol Version 6) [17]. The upper 4 bits should be zero. The value can be entered either as a decimal, binary or hex integer.

IPV6SA

A 128-bit IPV6 source address expressed as colon-separated hexadecmial quartets (octet pairs). The official format is defined in RFC 2460 (Internet Protocol Version 6) [17]. Our implementation permits multiple empty fields, abreviated fields and leading zeros within fields. When multiple empty fields appear, the right-most occurance expands to multiple zeros. For example, "AAAA::BBBB::CCCC" is equivalent to "AAAA:0000:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0000:CCCC".

IPV6DA

A 128-bit IPV6 destination address expressed as colon-separated hexadecimal quartets (octet pairs). The official format is defined in RFC 2460 (Internet Protocol Version 6) [17]. Our implementation permits multiple empty fields, abbreviated fields and leading zeros within fields. When multiple empty fields appear, the right-most occurance expands to zeros. For example, ":1::2" is equivalent to "0000:0001:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0002".

MME

A 24-bit Atheros HomePlugAV Management Message type expressed as a hex byte stream. For clarity, the recommeded format it "xx:xxxx". The first byte is the MMV. The next two bytes are the MMTYPE. Both are defined in the HomePlug AV Specification. The MMTYPE will match all MME variants, such as Request, Confirm, Indicate and Response because the lower two bits are ignored. This field is only valid for action "Boost".

TCPAck

The string "True" or "False" to indicate that the frame is (or is not) a TCP Acknowledgement. Double negatives are allowed so "Is True" is equvalent to "Not False" and "Is False" is equivalent to "Not True".

TCPSP

A 16-bit TCP source port as a decimal integer. The format is defined in RFC 793 (Transmission Control Protocol [15]).

TCPDP

A 16-bit TCP destination port expressed as a decimal integer. The format is defined in RFC 793 (Transmission Control Protocol [15]).

UDPSP

A 16-bit UDP source port expressed as a decimal integer. The format is defined in RFC 768 (User Datagram Protocol [13]).

UDPDP

A 16-bit UDP destination port expressed as a decimal integer. The format is defined in RFC 768 (User Datagram Protocol [13]).

VLANID

A 16-bit VLAN identifier where the lower 12 bits are the VLAN Identifier (VID) defined in IEEE Std 802.1Q-1998 (Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks) [11]. The upper 4 bits should be zero.

VLANUP

An 8-bit Ethernet VLAN tag where the lower 3 bits are the User Priority sub-field of a VLAN Tag defined in IEEE Std 802.1Q-1998 (Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks) [11]. The upper 5 bits should be zero.

VLANTag

The string "Present" or "Missing" to indicate the presence (or absence) of one or more VLAN Tags within a frame. This classifier is essentially equivalent to "ET Is 0x8100". Double negatives are allowed so "Is Present" is equivalent to "Not Missing" and "Is Missing" is equivalent to "Not Present".

OPERATORS

An operator indicates an equality between a field and a value. An operator is an alphanumeric string entered in upper, lower or mixed character case. Failure to enter a known operator will result in an error message that lists permitted operators. Operators are position sensitive and must appear between each field and value.

Is

Indicates that the frame field must equal the associated value for the condition to evaluate true.

Not

Indicates that the frame field must not equal the associated value for the condition to evaluate true.

STATES

A state is a special case of value.
True
,On,Yes,Present

Indicates a positive state or presence of some entity. All are equivalent and can be used interchangeably. Double negatives are permitted so "Is True" is equvalent to "Not False".

False,Off,No,Missing

Indicates a negative state or absence of some entity. All are equivalent and can be used interchangeably. Double negatives are permitted so "Is False" is equvalent to "Not True".

CONTROLS

The control determines how the devices will handle the rule after it is validated. It is expressed as a discrete alphanumeric string entered in upper, lower or mixed character case. Failure to enter a known control will result in an error message that lists permitted controls. The control is position sensitive and must occur after condition and before volatility.

Add

Adds the rule to the current list of rules unless a violation occurs. In some cases, a rule may replace an existing rule instead of being added.

Rem,Remove

Remove the rule from the current list of rules unless a violation occurs.

VOLATILITY

The volatility determines which device rule set will be affected by the action. It is expressed as a discrete alphanumeric string entered in upper, lower or mixed character case. Failure to enter a known volatility will result in an error message that lists permitted volatilities. The volatility is position sensitive and must occur after control.

Temp

The temporary rule set will be modified. The temporary rule set resides in the working PIB stored in SDRAM.

Perm

The permanent rule set will be modified. The permanent rule set resides in the user PIB stored in NVRAM.

DEVICES

Powerline devices use Ethernet Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. A MAC address is a 48-bit value entered as 12 hexadecimal digits in upper, lower or mixed character case. Octets may be separated with colons for clarity. For example, "00b052000001", "00:b0:52:00:00:01" and "00b052:000001" are valid and equivalent.

The following MAC addresses are special and may be entered by name instead of number.

all

Same as "broadcast".

broadcast

A synonym for the Ethernet broadcast address, FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF. All devices, whether local, remote or foreign recognize messages sent to this address. A remote device is any device at the far end of a powerline connection. A foreign device is any device not manufactured by Atheros.

local

A synonym for the Qualcomm Atheros vendor specific Local Management Address (LMA), 00:B0:52:00:00:01. All local Atheros devices recognize this address but remote and foreign devices do not. A remote device is any device at the far end of a powerline connection. A foreign device is any device not manufactured by Atheros.

REFERENCES

See the Qualcomm Atheros HomePlug AV Firmware Technical Reference Manual for more information.

DISCLAIMER

Atheros HomePlug AV Vendor Specific Management Message structure and content is proprietary to Qualcomm Atheros, Ocala FL USA. Consequently, public information is not available. Qualcomm Atheros reserves the right to modify message structure or content in future firmware releases without any obligation to notify or compensate users of this program.

EXAMPLES

This command adds a temporary classification rule to the classification table on device B00:B0:52:BA:BE:01. The rule instructs the device to drop frames that match either (any) of two conditions. The first condition states that the IPv4 source address is 192.168.99.2. The second conditon states that the IPv4 destination address is 192.168.99.100.

# amprule drop any IPv4SA is 192.168.99.2 IPv4DA is 192.168.99.100 add temp 00:B0:52:BA:BE:01

Observe that the action, operand and conditions come first then the control and volatility then the affected devices. Up to three conditions may be specified. Keyword order is important. Character case is not important.

The following example prints a list of programmed keywords on stdout for reference. The example shown here has been abbreviate due to formatting limitations.

# amprule -t

Controls are ’Add’|’Rem’|’Remove’
Volatilities are ’Temp’|’Perm’
Actions are ’CAP0’|’CAP1’|’CAP2’|’CAP3’|’Boost’|...|’StripTX’|’StripRX’|’TagRX’
Operands are ’All’|’Any’|’Always’
Fields are ’EthDA’|’EthSA’|’VLANUP’|’VLANID’|’IPv4TOS’|...|’TCPAck’|’VLANTag’
Operators are ’Is’|’Not’

More example follow:

Ethernet Address Rules

Ethernet address rules have the following general format:

| CAP0 | ANY | EthSA | IS | xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx | ADD | TEMP | xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx
| CAP1 | ALL | EthDA | NOT | | REMOVE | PERM |
| CAP2 |
| CAP3 |
| DROP |

For example, instruct device 00:B0:52:BA:BE:FF to temporarily add a rule to forward frames from 00:2B:FE:CA:FE:BA at CAP3. Observe Ethernet hardware addresses are used both in the condition and for the affected powerline devices.

# amprule cap3 any ethsa is 00:2b:fe:ca:fe:ba add temp 00:b0;52:ba:be:ff

IP Address Rules

IP address rules have the following general format:

| CAP0 | ANY | IPv4SA | IS | ddd.ddd.ddd.ddd | ADD | TEMP | xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx
| CAP1 | ALL | IPv4DA | NOT | | REMOVE | PERM |
| CAP2 |
| CAP3 |
| DROP |

For example, instruct device 00:B0:52:BA:BE:FF to permanently remove the rule that drops packets from 192.168.99.1. Notice that the IP address is specified in dotted decimal format but the device address is specified in hexadecimal octet format. Dotted decimal format permits empty and variable length octets but octet delimiters are mandatory. Hexadecimal octet format requires fixed length octets but octet delimiters are optional.

# amprule drop any ipv4sa is 192.168.99.1 remove perm 00:b0:52:ba:be:ff

IP Protocol Rules

IP protocol rules have the following general format:

| CAP0 | ANY | IPv4PROT | IS | xxxx | ADD | TEMP | xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx
| CAP1 | ALL | | NOT | | REMOVE | PERM |
| CAP2 |
| CAP3 |
| DROP |

For example, to instruct device 00:B0:52:BA:BE:FF to permanently add a rule to forward non-IP packets at CAP2. In this example, delmiters have been omitted from the device Ethernet address.

# amprule CAP2 all ipv4prot not 0x0800 add perm 00b052babeff

SEE ALSO

plc(1), amprate(1), ampstat(1), amptone(7)

CREDITS

Charles Maier


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